·         Arousal

·         The Brain

·         Exercise

·         Indoor Air Pollution

·         Muscle Tension

·         Nutrition

·         Posture

·         Sensory Processing

·         Sleep

·         Other Suggestions


Research Topics


My Theories

Former Theories



The Cause of Internet and TV Addiction?



Note: Adrenaline is also called epinephrine.


·          What is Adrenaline?

·          The Adrenal Glands

·          The Adrenal Hormones

·          Causes

·          Inhibitors of Excess Adrenaline

·         Exercise (Moderate)

·         Adrenal Fatigue

·          Effects

·          Adrenaline and Stress

·          Medical Applications

·          Adrenaline Addiction

·           Related Topics


What is Adrenaline?

"Epinephrine (also adrenaline, epi in medical jargon) is a hormone and acts as a neurotransmitter..."

Wikipedia: Epinephrine


The Adrenal Glands

·          "The human body has two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney.

·          These glands form part of the endocrine system, which works in conjunction with the nervous system and the immune system to help the body cope with different events and stresses.

·          Adrenaline is the most well known hormone secreted by the adrenal glands. Other important hormones include cortisol, aldosterone and the sex hormone androgen.

·          All these hormones are synthesised from cholesterol, which is an oily substance manufactured by the body and found in animal, and some vegetable, products. Particular enzymes are needed to help convert cholesterol into the adrenal hormones."

Better Health Channel: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia


The Adrenal Hormones

"The hormones produced by the adrenal glands perform many vital bodily functions, including:

·          Cortisol -

  • Helps the body cope with stress,
  • Maintains constant blood sugar levels,
  • Aids the immune system and
  • Contributes to blood pressure control.

·          Aldosterone - maintains the correct amount of salt in the body, which influences blood volume and blood pressure.

·          Androgen - one of the male sex hormones, responsible for male sexual characteristics."

Better Health Channel: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia


Causes of Adrenaline Secretion


"The body has a natural chemical that gives a feeling of a natural high."

Internet Articles: Health Articles: Alcoholism


Alcohol (Only in the case of Asians, and people taking the drug Disulfiram (Antabus, Refusal))

"The acetaldehyde which escapes to the blood can encourage the release of adrenaline and dopamine, but in general the level of concentration of acetaldehyde is too low for that. There are two exceptions:

1. Asians are particularly affected by a genetically determined acceleration in the production of acetaldehyde, which can result in tachycardia,
transpiration, headache, paleness and nausea after the consumption of only small quantities of alcohol.
2. The same symptoms occur as a reaction to disulfiram (Antabus, Refusal). Disulfiram inhibits ALDH, resulting in a rapid accumulation of acetaldehyde after the consumption of alcohol."

Drug Text: Substances & Pharmacology: Alcohol

Exercise (High Intensity)

"As exercise intensity increases, neural messages are sent to the adrenal glands located on top of the kidneys which in response secrete adrenaline into the bloodstream."

Interleukin-6 Hormone and Exercise Endocrinology



"Stress can help us get work done [when we are tired]"

Saint Mary's University: Safety News Articles


Life-Endangering Situations

"It happens in the presence of a life-endangering situation [adrenaline may also be released during artificial life-endangering situations, such as by watching horror movies or computer games]. This chemical is adrenaline, which is meant to prepare the body for defense in the case of an emergency."

Internet Articles: Health Articles: Alcoholism



"The mechanisms employed by caffeine, cocaine, and heroin, are

·          To close blood vessels in the brain, so the brain and body cannot sleep,

·          To cause the release of adrenaline into the body, so the body remains active and alert, and to manipulate dopamine production [an increase in dopamine production] in the brain, so the person experiences a temporary 'high.'"

Cool Quiz: How does caffeine affect us?



"Stress can help us get work done but the tension it builds in our body can lead to illness. Stress causes our body to produce adrenaline and tenses our muscles…"

Saint Mary's University: Safety News Articles


·          "Some persons are more sugar sensitive than others, and children may be more sensitive than adults.

·          A study comparing the sugar response in children and adults showed that the adrenaline levels in children remained ten times higher than normal for up to five hours after a test dose of sugar.

·          Studies have also shown that some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) react to glucose intolerance tests with a dip to low blood sugar levels.

·          High adrenaline levels or low blood sugar levels produce abnormal behavior." Family Nutrition: Sugar


Inhibitors of Excess Adrenaline

Exercise (Moderate)

"Exercise burns off adrenaline and allows muscles to dissipate the tension."

Saint Mary's University: Safety News Articles


People experiencing adrenaline addiction may have an aversion to exercise.


·          "Regular physical exercise is a simple and effective means of reducing stress.

·          Physical exercise is the outlet for the body when its in fight or flight state.

·          Exercise releases [gets rid of] the natural chemicals such as adrenalin that accumulate during stress.

·          Exercise relieves:

  • Chronic muscle tension,
  • Reduces insomnia,
  • Decreases depression and
  • Anxiety

·          Exercise increases alertness and concentration

·          Exercise reduces skeletal muscle tension and helps people to feel more relaxed

·          Exercise leads to more rapid metabolism of excess adrenaline and thyroxin in the bloodstream, in other words it reduces the hormones which increase arousal.

·          Exercise allows people to discharge their frustrations which can aggravate phobias or panic reactions.

·          Exercise helps you to feel good by stimulating the production of endorphins & exercise increases your energy level"

Anxiety Treatment Australia: Treatment Options: Exercise


·          "Recent research indicates that periodic exercise enhances adrenaline secretion [I assume that periodic, moderate, exercise doesn't lead to an excess of adrenaline] and decreases cortisol (glucocorticoid) secretion. This is important because chronic excessive cortisol secretion leads to increased fat deposition.

·          Exercise must be appropriate for each person. Excessive exercise may burn calories, but can also lead to endocrine gland exhaustion and eventually to more severe weight problems."

Overcoming Obesity by Dr. Paul C. Eck and Dr. Larry Wilson


Adrenal Fatigue


"After a few months or years of chronic stress the adrenal glands become weak. Even after a rest they are unable to respond to stress in a normal manner.

·          The most common clinical manifestation of this condition is chronic fatigue, a condition which is increasing in our society at an alarming rate. This is surely not he only cause of chronic fatigue, but is often involved and should always be thought of when evaluating a person for CFS [chronic fatigue syndrome].

·          Other signs of weak adrenal function are overeating and weight gain, also conditions rife in our society.

·          When the adrenals are completely nonfunctional, the result is weight loss, excessive loss of salt from the kidneys and abnormally low blood pressure. This condition is most commonly seen in females."

Ron Kennedy, M.D.: Adrenal  Fatigue


Sea Salt:

·          Nutrition: Sea Salt: Benefits: Weak Adrenals



·          Arousal: Depression: Blood Sugar Levels



·           Arousal: Hypoglycemia: Causes: Stress and Adrenal Fatigue

·           Arousal: Hypoglycemia: Causes: Different Types: Hypoglycemia Due to Adrenal Fatigue

·          Arousal: Hypoglycemia: Effects: Adrenal Type Anxiety Induced Hypoglycemia



General Effects

"When released into the bloodstream, epinephrine acts to

·          Increase heart rate and blood pressure,

·          Dilate the pupils,

·          Elevate the blood sugar level (by increased hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose), and

·          Redistribute blood flow away from the skin and inner organs."

Wikipedia: Epinephrine



"Epinephrine plays a central role in the stress reaction--the physiological response to conditions that threaten the physical integrity of the body. It is secreted by the adrenal medulla."

Wikipedia: Epinephrine


Hypovolemia (Low Blood Volume)

·          Other Suggestions: Hypovolemia: Effects: Hyperactivity, Adrenaline Addiction

·          My Theories: Internet Addiction is Caused by Hypovolemia (Low Blood Volume)



“The muscles of the iris contract to allow the pupil to expand [dilate] for extra sight (to what degree depends on the amount of light).”

Optic Al: Eye Anatomy: What Causes Our Vision to Change?


Adrenaline and Stress

It's important to realize that engaging in activities that cause a release of adrenaline, such as playing computer games, is the wrong way to deal with stress.

     In the short term, adrenaline makes you feel more alert. But in the long term, you become tired and unable to deal with stress.

     The next time you feel like playing computer games or surfing the Internet, try to do something relaxing instead such as:

·          Taking a hot bath or a shower

·          Taking a nap

·          Vision Exercises: palming, breathing and blinking, sunning, swinging, distance viewing (Bates' method)

·          Getting some fresh air

·           Exercise (Moderate)

·          Drinking a glass of water or a rehydration drink

·          Stretching


·          Other Suggestions: Hypovolemia: Hyperactivity, Adrenaline Addiction

·          The Brain: Frontal Lobes

·          Other Suggestions: Keeping a Checklist: Backsliding: Eyestrain


Medical Applications


"Epinephrine is used as a drug in order to

·          stimulate cardiac action in cardiac arrest,

·          as a vasoconstrictor in anaphylactic shock and sepsis, and

·          as a bronchodilator [counteracting the effect of histamine which constricts the bronchial muscles] in acute bronchial asthma.

·           Allergy patients undergoing immunotherapy can get an epinephrine rinse before their allergan extract is administered.

Wikipedia: Epinephrine


"Adverse reactions include

·          Palpitations,

·          Tachycardia,

·          Anxiety,

·          Headache,

·          Tremor,

·          Hypertension, and

·           Acute pulmonary oedema."

Wikipedia: Epinephrine



"Because you can't be 100% certain you won't unwittingly eat something you're allergic to, or be stung by a bee, your doctor may prescribe an EpiPen to carry with you. If you have a reaction, this easily administered shot of epinephrine (a.k.a. adrenaline) will expand your airways, letting you breathe until medical help arrives. You may also consider wearing a MedicAlert bracelet to inform others of your allergy if you're unable to communicate during an allergic reaction." Allergies: Treatment


Adrenaline Addiction

"Adrenaline addiction is very common.

·          Type-A personalities become addicted to their excessive activity by the stimulation and arousal of adrenaline.

·          People who are constantly angry, fearful, guilty, or worrisome arouse their adrenaline hormone even though they may sit around doing nothing else.

·           People who are excessive in their participationin jogging, exercise, bodybuilding, aerobics, sports, skiing, mountain climbing, car racing or flying…airplanes become addicted because of the adrenaline rush from their activity. They describe the 'rush' they get from their activity and feel depressed when they can't participate for some unexpected reason."

Bible Life Ministries: Absolute Scientific Proof Carbohydrates are Pathogenic (Disease Causing)


·          Other Suggestions: Hypovolemia: Effects: Hyperactivity, Adrenaline Addiction

·          My Theories: Internet Addiction is Caused by Hypovolemia (Low Blood Volume)

·          Sensory Processing: Laterality

·          Sensory Processing: Interhemispheric Integration

·          Other Suggestions: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder


Related Topics

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)

·          Symptoms: Self-Stimulating Behaviors


The Brain:

·      Frontal Lobes: Effects: Increased Activity the Frontal Lobes

·           Melatonin: Effects

·          Serotonin Irritation Syndrome: Adrenaline, Noradrenaline

·      Tyrosine: What is Tyrosine?



·           Research Topics: Brainwaves: Beta Brainwaves: Stimulants

·          Research Topics: Brainwaves: Beta Brainwaves: Too Much Beta



·          Blood Sugar Levels


Hyperactivity/High Arousal:

·          Arousal: Depression: Hormones which Affect Blood Sugar Levels

·          Arousal: Hyperactivity/High Arousal: Low Adrenaline



·          Causes: Stress and Adrenal Fatigue

·          Causes: Different Types: Hypoglycemia Due to Adrenal Fatigue

·          Effects: Adrenal Type Anxiety Induced Hypoglycemia


Indoor Air Pollution:

·          Ions: Effects: Effects on the Brain: Serotonin



Back to 'The Brain'