·         Arousal

·         The Brain

·         Exercise

·         Indoor Air Pollution

·         Muscle Tension

·         Nutrition

·         Posture

·         Sensory Processing

·         Sleep

·         Other Suggestions


Research Topics


My Theories

Former Theories



The Cause of Internet and TV Addiction?



Brainwave Therapy



·         EEG Spectrum's Neurofeedback (Brainwave Therapy) FAQ

·         EEG Spectrum's Disclaimer

·        EEG Info, The Complete Neurofeedback Resource



Persons subject to any form of seizures or epilepsy, using a pacemaker, or suffering from cardiac arrhythmias or other heart disorders, SHOULD NOT use any brainwave sentrainment device without medical supervision.


Alpha Waves

Neurotherapists believe that alpha brainwave training may be helpful in treating people suffering from conditions similar to hypervigilence such as PTSD, and having low alpha. However, frequent exposure to alpha frequencies may cause a release of endorphins.

Open Focus Therapy (Dr. Les Fehmi)




Note: Don't use the following recording when driving:

·         Alpha Relaxation System (Dr. Jeffrey Thompson)

·         More information about Dr. Jeffrey Thomspon

General Effects

·        “…Insomniacs - Delta Waves will help you relax very quickly and fall asleep. You will wake up fell energized.

·        Artists - Theta waves can make you more creative. Alpha waves make colors look more vivid, objects sharper, smells keener

·        Daydreamers - Theta waves can help with guided imagery.
- Theta and Alpha (referring to alpha/theta here?) waves can put you in a hypnotic trance.

·        Meditate - Theta Waves help you to relax and concentrate in a trancelike state.

·        Athletes - Alpha waves help you to relax in competitions while providing you with an energy rush and better circulation.  You will play ‘in the zone.’

·        Depression - Alpha waves release serotonin, dopamine, and endorphins in the brain and body.

·        Manic Depression- Alpha waves can put you in a manic, hyperactive, energetic, euphoric state.

·        Partygoers - Alpha waves help you become more social, lowering your inhibitions.

·        Philosophers - Alpha waves give you insight you never thought you had.

·        Social Anxiety Disorder - Alpha waves help you to relax and socialize.

·        Time Warp - Days after listening to Alpha waves, time feels like it is going extremely slow.

·        ADD, ADHD - Beta waves can help you concentrate and calm down.

·        Geniuses - Beta Waves help you to Concentrate without Ritalin, Ginseng, or Ginkgo Biloba.

·        Martial Arts - Alpha waves speed up muscle reflexes and lowers your pain threshold.

·        Students- Beta waves can help you concentrate, remember, and organize your thoughts.

     Lower brainwaves (Delta, Theta, and low Alpha) may cause stupor and sleepiness. They tend to release serotonin while higher frequencies (Beta and Gamma) release more dopamine. Beta frequencies organize thoughts, helping you to remember things and concentrate. Withdrawal from Alpha Waves makes you remember childhood memories. Alpha waves relax the body and helps blood flow to extremities.”

Ultimate Brainwave Synchronization Cd 64 Tracks 2
General Side Effects

“Typical Side Effects of Brainwave Synchronization [i.e. listing to brainwaves CDs]

·        Headache

·        Days to weeks after listening to Brainwave Synchronization, some people report depression.

·        Difficulty concentrating (especially when trying to do math or read) after listening to Alpha.

·        Temporary memory lapse/Displacement.

·        Aggression/Anxiety

·        Abnormal fluctuations in circadian rhythm.

Other Side Effects of Brainwave Synchronization

     Delta (3Hz-6Hz)

·        Very Sleepy, difficulty waking up. 

·        Also difficulty concentrating. 

Delta Treatment

A few minutes of High Alpha (12Hz) should help.

     Theta (6Hz-8Hz)

Dreamlike state.  Difficulty concentrating.  Many people have reported seeing ‘Swirls’ while listening to high intensity Theta waves. Shortened attention span. 

Theta Overload Treatment

You should return to normal a few hours later after you have stopped listening to Theta waves.  Also a few minutes of High Alpha (12Hz) can help.

     Alpha (8Hz-12Hz)

·        One to two weeks after listening to Alpha waves some people report seeing psychedelic colors for 30-45 minutes. However, do not be frightened. Your vision should return to normal. If this happens, I suggest that you stop listening to brainwaves for a while.

·        Some people report feeling exhausted and having abnormal fluctuations in their circadian rhythm (irregular sleeping patterns) one to two weeks after listening to Alpha waves. Your sleep patterns should return to normal after about two weeks of not listening to brainwaves.

·        It has also been reported that a person may have a photographic memory for from about a few days to a week after listening to brainwave synchronization.  Very Rare.

·        Many people have reported having vivid dreams after listening to Brainwave Synchronization.

·        Dilated pupils.

·        Some people may see spots (which are often purple) and have eye pain a few days to weeks after listening to Brainwave Synchronization.

·        A week or two after listening to Alpha brainwaves, sudden stabbing pains in the back of the head are common.

·        Paranoia, sensitivity to lights, and sensitivity to sounds are common a week or two after listening to Alpha.

·        I have found that a week or two after listening to alpha brainwave frequencies, I recall childhood memories.  I also see similarities in people's faces  with people that I know or used to know.  This is very common.

Alpha treatment

I suggest that you discontinue use of brainwaves for a few weeks if you are experiencing any of those side effects.

     Beta Overload (12Hz-30Hz)

·        Rapid heart beat.

·        Pounding heart beats.

·        Vivid Dreams

·        Focused attention span

·        Mania

·        Paranoia

·        Agitation

·        Mood swings

·        Insomnia

·        Obsessive Compulsive

Beta Overload Treatment

If you have listened to too much Beta waves, it can be treated by simply listening to some Alpha waves.  I recommend (8-10 Hz) for a few minutes to help you calm down.”

Atypical Side Effects of Brainwave Synchronization  One to two weeks after listening to Alpha waves

Alpha-Theta Therapy

Things to Consider

Alpha-theta therapy may stimulate memories in your subconscious mind. Evoking these memories may exacerbate depression. Depression may lead to an even greater desire to increase SMR and Beta brainwaves by engaging in activities which require vigilence (e.g. surfing the Internet).

     However, I personally believe that the benefits of meditation and alpha-theta therapy are indispensible. Although it may not be a good idea to listen to an alpha-theta CD (mentioned below) while using a computer.

     More information about depression can be found on the Depression/Low Arousal page.



Alpha-theta training may be helpful in both treating hypervigilence and in stabilizing levels of endorphins.

"Since elevations in serum beta-endorphin levels are associated with stress, their elevation in the traditional therapy group may indicate that this group is  experiencing the stress associated with abstinence [patients are not used to SMR state and have an higher intolerance for SMR?] and fear of relapse. It is interesting that the PKBWNT group did not show an increase in this stress hormone after treatment, but instead showed a stabilization (PenistonKulkosky, 1989)." 

The Peniston-Kulkosky Brainwave Neurofeedback Therapeutic Protocol

Alpha-Theta CD  


·        Don't listen to any of Dr. Thompson's CDs while driving.

·        Dr. Jeffrey Thompson believes that using stereo equipment is essential when playing his CDs.

  • If you are using headphones place them comfortably with left channel on you left ear and right channel on your right.
  • If you are using stereo speakers, make sure they are properly placed to the left and right of where you sit or lie to achieve the proper stereo separation. Place yourself as close as possible to the center and in front of your speakers to achieve the best results.

·        Choose a quiet, relaxed, and comfortable environment

·        Try to relax all of your muscles

Alpha-Theta CD (Part of Brainwave Suite collection by Dr. Jeffrey Thompson)



Meditation and Brainwaves:

“The MEDITATION brainwave pattern is a combination of alpha and theta where theta provides the depth and profundity of the meditation experience – the subconscious inner space from which creativity, insight, and healing spring – and alpha provides the bridge, or the link, to the conscious thinking mind so  that you can actually remember the contents of your meditation.”

The Awakened Mind (Anna Wise)


Avoid Transcendental or Mantra Meditation:

It may be wise to avoid transcendental meditation or mantra meditation. I've found articles on the Internet which claim that these forms of meditation can actually cause depersonalization and derealization-among other things.


Brainwave Therapy: SMR

Example of SMR Neurofeedback

"For an eight-year-old named Jake the rest of the world has disappeared as he sits quietly in a darkened room and stares intently at a computer screen with a yellow Pac-Man gobbling dots as it moves across a bright blue  background. A soft, steady beeping is the only sound. Jake is not using a joystick or keyboard to control the cartoon character; instead, a single thin wire with a dime-sized, gold-plated cup is fastened to his scalp with  conducting paste. The sensor picks up the boy's brain waves-his electroencephalogram (literally, electric head picture), or EEG-and as he changes his brain waves by relaxing or breathing deeply or paying closer attention, he also controls the speed of the Pac-Man.  (Page 1)"

Book: Robbins, Jim. A Symphony in the Brain. Grove Press, 2000.  


"Jake's brain has places where the electrical activity is not as stable as it should be [Jake is epileptic]. Research shows that the brain's electrical signals are subject to change and that people can be taught how to change them. All neurofeedback does is help guide the client to a specific frequency range and help him or her stay there. The brain does the rest. A technician has set the  computer Jake is playing Pac-Man on so that when Jake spends time in those hard-to-reach frequencies [SMR is'hard to reach' for some epileptics], the Pac-Man gobbles dots and beeps like crazy. When he is not in those frequencies, the Pac-Man stops gobbling and turns black. Jake knows nothing about brain waves or his EEG, he simply knows that when the Pac-Man is gobbling and beeping, he is winning, and so he has learned how to adjust his brain waves to make the Pac-Man gobble

  dots all the time. It was easy: he caught on in just one session. As he spends more time in those frequencies his brain has trouble generating, his brain learns to function there on its own. This exercise makes the brain more  stable [Note: SMR increases stability for some epileptics. In other epileptics, SMR may actually induce seizures] (Page 7)."

Book: Robbins, Jim. A Symphony in the Brain. Grove Press, 2000.  


Treating ADD with Neurofeedback

"Lubar's [Dr. Joel Lubar] hypothesis for what is happening in an ADD brain is that with certain subtypes of attention deficits, there is decreased metabolism and decreased blood flow to the subcallosol cortex.  "They're turned off," he says. "That means those areas are not getting enough norepinephrine and other neurotransmitters." As is the case with epilepsy, Lubar believes that when the brain is trained with  neurofeedback, blood bathes the cells in the frontal cortex and acts as a kind of fertilizer helping cells overcome malformation, due either to genetics or perhaps from cortisol damage caused by emotional stress. Existing connections are strengthened or reorganized, or perhaps they grow new branches. Whatever the case, they make better, more robust  connections with adjoining cells, and so the transfer of current and neurochemicals works much faster and more efficiently. "What we hope we are doing is turning that area on," he says. However, Lubar doesn't think that the Neurofeedback is treating the subcallosol cortex directly,

because it's deep in the brain. "We're training the areas in the central and frontal cortex that are involved in the focusing of attention, intent to attend, and the evaluation of appropriate behavior," he says. "By training the area that the subcallosol cortex projects or connects to, it reflects back on how it is operating. That's what we hypothesize.(P.  139)"

Book: Robbins, Jim. A Symphony in the Brain. Grove Press, 2000.  


Neurofeedback  for ADHD

EEG Biofeedback for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (EEG Spectrum)


Neurofeedback: Beta vs. SMR

"For a long time there were two basic approaches to neurofeedback. Generally, those who do beta, or 15-to-18 hertz training on the left side of the brain, feel alert, and those who do 12-to15-hertz SMR training on the  right side feel calm. Most hyperactive kids respond better to SMR training; a minority do better with 15-to-18-hertz.(P. 109)"

Book: Robbins, Jim. A Symphony in the Brain. Grove Press, 2000.  



Some people believe that alpha-theta training can be useful in treating depression. The following link contains more information about treating depression with brainwave therapy.

EEG Spectrum International, Inc.


Flexibility: Moving between States

"…Sterman [Dr. Barry Sterman] did research on B-2 test pilots, monitoring their EEGs as they performed the complicated task of flying a bomber. Those that performed the task best, and with the least amount of stress, were those whose brain waves were the most flexible-that is, those who were able to go into the high-frequency, desynchronized state of beta and, after the task was complete, to move quickly back into synchronous alpha, a relaxed state. Those who didn't experience the alpha reward were more anxious, more stressed. (Pages 227-228)"

Book: Robbins, Jim. A Symphony in the Brain. Grove Press, 2000.  


“The SMR and beta training, Schroth says, allows people to focus much better and attend to the task at hand; it increases their ability to move between states. (Pages 227-228)"

Book: Robbins, Jim. A Symphony in the Brain. Grove Press, 2000.  


“In the future, employees involved in complicated, stressful tasks might wear biofeedback equipment all the time so they could 'turn on' the higher-frequency brain waves when they need to and come to a complete rest  between tasks to keep burnout low. (Pages 227-228)"

Book: Robbins, Jim. A Symphony in the Brain. Grove Press, 2000.  



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