·         Arousal

·         The Brain

·         Exercise

·         Indoor Air Pollution

·         Muscle Tension

·         Nutrition

·         Posture

·         Sensory Processing

·         Sleep

·         Other Suggestions


Research Topics


My Theories

Former Theories



The Cause of Internet and TV Addiction?


Negative Ions


·        What are Negative Ions?

·        Natural Sources

·        Artificial Sources

·        Related Topics


What are Negative Ions?

"Negative ions are odorless, tasteless, and invisible molecules that we inhale in abundance in certain environments. Think mountains, waterfalls, and beaches."

WebMD: Negative Ions Create Positive Vibes


·        Research Topics: Ions


Natural Sources

Sunlight, Radiation, Moving Air and Water

"Ions are molecules that have gained or lost an electrical charge. They are created in nature as air molecules break apart due to sunlight, radiation, and moving air and water. You may have experienced the power of negative ions when you last set foot on the beach or walked beneath a waterfall...The air circulating in the mountains and the beach is said to contain tens of thousands of negative ions -- Much more than the average home or office building, which contain dozens or hundreds, and many register a flat zero."

WebMD: Negative Ions Create Positive Vibes


"The action of the pounding surf creates negative air ions and we also see it immediately after spring thunderstorms when people report lightened moods," says ion researcher Michael Terman, PhD, of Columbia University in New York."

WebMD: Negative Ions Create Positive Vibes


"Small (ingestible) negative ions of oxygen are found in invigorating environments such as near waterfalls, pine forests, or on the seashore where waves are breaking on the rocks. They are generally produced by the action of cosmic rays, lightning and radon from the earth's crust. There are approximately 4000 small negative ions per cubic centimeter of air in these environments."

Tools and Technique for Mental Fitness: What are Ions?



·        Indoor Air Pollution: Plants



Note: The high humidity and temperature from a hot shower can cause negative ions to cluster together so that they are not ingestible.

"Every home has a built in natural ionizer -- the shower."

WebMD: Negative Ions Create Positive Vibes


Beeswax Candles

"Beeswax, derived from flowers and bees, is nontoxic, naturally aromatic, and when burned emits beneficial negative ions that actually help purify the air. But beeswax supplies are limited, making it expensive."

North Bay Bohemian: Burning Bright -  Beeswax and soya candles are a safe alternative to harmful paraffin candles


Water Fountains

"The small decorative water fountains which cascade or spray are not only visually appealing, but also provide the pleasing sound of moving water."

Raum & Zeit (Space & Time): Why are negative ions so healthy?


Binchotan and Bamboo Charcoal

Less Expensive Alternatives

·        “All odors are positively charged gases that float in the air like dust particles. The ZeOdor Volcanic Crystals have a negative charge that traps positively charged odor particles. The process is similar to a piece of metal being attracted to a magnet.

·        After 3 months place the pouch in the sunlight for 6 hours, this procedure recharges ZeOdor making it a wonderful odor-controlling tool that can be used over and over.

·        The 2 lb. pouches are effective in a room up to 500 square feet and the 4 oz. pouches are effective in rooms of up to 100 square feet.

ZeOdor Eliminates Odor Moisture / Fundraiser



·        "A computer room will have roughly six times as many positive ions as negative ones at the end of the day even if the room was aired in the morning, unless it is aired frequently during the day.

·        Binchotan and bamboo charcoals not only dissipate 'hazardous' electromagnetic waves from computer monitors but also generate negative ions. More accurately, the infrared rays emitted constantly from charcoals reduce moisture in the air into fine particles that naturally change into negative ions. This means that a certain amount of moisture must be present in the computer room if charcoal is used to increase the room's negative ion ratio. The ideal degree of humidity in computer rooms is between 45 and 55%. In winter, when houses are heated, the computer room tends to be too dry. Of course, we can install a humidifier capable of controlling the degree of humidity in the air, but a few wet towels may be sufficient.

·        In order to keep a room 10 ft x 10 ft (3.2 m x 3.2 m) in an ideal ionic state, we need 9 lbs. (4 kg) of binchotan or 7 lbs. (3 kg) of bamboo charcoal [about $80 US]. According to our charcoal prices, it costs the same whether we use binchotan charcoal or bamboo charcoal.

·        An important difference between binchotan charcoal and bamboo charcoal is that the latter tends to break easily as it is a lot more fragile.

·        One important thing, however, is that once charcoal is placed in a room, it keeps working forever."

HappyLongLife: Health Benefits of Negative Ions Generated by Binchotan and Bamboo Charcoals



"Please note that the preceding short note on negative ions and charcoal has been prepared by staff of HappyLongLife, Inc. based on various materials found in the United States and Japan. The information presented here is for educational purposes only and is not intended in any way to give advice to a person suffering from any disease. Such a person should consult a medical or health expert."

HappyLongLife: Health Benefits of Negative Ions Generated by Binchotan and Bamboo Charcoals


Feng Shui

"In feng shui we use indoor water fountains, natural sprays and ferns to generate negative ions and improve life quality. You can also buy a good quality ionizer, which will generate a lot more negative ions. Being in a negative ion environment will make you feel relaxed, yet alert and exhilarated."

Living in Alignment Feng Shui: Newsletter Volume 3, 2003


Artificial Sources

Negative-Ion Generators


"Do they really work as well as antidepressants? Can they also relieve allergies by filtering out dust mites and dander?

It's too early to tell for sure, experts tell WebMD, but that's not to say there is not some sound science behind the concept."

WebMD: Negative Ions Create Positive Vibes


What to Look For

"But when it comes to springing for that negative-ion generator you saw advertised in the local paper or on the web, buyer beware, says Columbia's Terman.

     'There is a major problem with advertised units,' he tells WebMD. "Output levels are not ... specified in a way that could advise antidepressant dose." 

     And, he says, the cost of apparently equivalent units ranges from $100 to $1,000.  

     'The safest course of action, in my opinion, would be to use units that have been demonstrated effective in our clinical trials and trials to come," he advises WebMD readers."

WebMD: Negative Ions Create Positive Vibes


Small, Ingestible Negative Ions

"There appears to be a connection between ions and mood.

     Dr. Michael Norden in his book, Beyond Prozac, discusses research which has found that exposure to negative ions can reduce irritability and depression and improve cognitive performance and energy.

     Norden cites the recent work of Terman and Terman1, who used negative ions in a clinical study of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). They found high density negative ions to be as effective as light therapy in treatment of this disorder. Small density was ineffective. This may address one of the sources of controversy in ion research - the variability of ion effectiveness.

     The Termans cite Charry 's (1987) conclusion that '(1) there appear to be effects of ions on biological and behavioral responses in both animals and humans; (2) when these effects occur, they are for the most part small in absolute magnitude [small clusters of negative ions]; and (3) the effects that have been observed are for the most part transient'. It is possible that small transient effects are all that can be produced by the inefficient methods of ion delivery that many studies have suffered from."

Center for Environmental Therapeutics: Negative Ion Therapy



To determine the output of a device that produces negative ions it is important to find numbers that are in units of 'ions per second per cubic centimeter'.

     Some companies may claim that their device produces 'trillions of ions' even if their device does not produce trillions ofions per second per cubic centimeter.


Questions and Answers

·        What is high-density negative air ionization therapy?

·        I haven’t heard of negative air ionization therapy before. What is it?

·        How does one choose whether to use light therapy, negative air ionization or dawn simulation for SAD? If one light version of therapy does not work well for you, does that mean the other also will not?

·        I am thinking about trying an ionizer instead of my light box. What is the protocol?

·        What brand of negative ion generator do you use in your studies? What should a person who wants to purchase one look for to be sure it is a quality product?

·        I am looking into buying a negative ionizer. I am confused about what specifications I need to look for. For example, how many ions per second would be sufficient? There is a wide range out there. Are there other things I should look for?

·        What is the relationship, if any, between negative ions and ozone?

·        Are negative ion generators safe to use during pregnancy? What about around infants?

·        What are the long-term effects (genetic or otherwise) of prolonged exposure to negative air ions?

·        More Questions:

Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center: Clinical Chronobiology - Ask the Doctor


Air Purifiers

"Don’t expect your air purifier to deliver antidepressant effects—most often, the dose would be far too low, and we are evaluating special apparatus for this purpose."

I haven’t heard of negative air ionization therapy before. What is it?I haven’t heard of negative air ionization therapy before. What is it?


"Twenty-five subjects with winter depression underwent a double-blind controlled trial of negative ions at two exposure densities,

·        10,000 ions per cubic cm [small or low density] or

·        2,700,000 ions per cubic cm [high density],

 using an electronic negative ion generator with wire corona emitters…Using a remission criterion of 50% or greater reduction in symptom frequency/severity,

·        58% of subjects responded to high-density treatment while

·        15% responded to low density treatment"

Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Treatment Of Seasonal Affective Disorder with a High-output Negative Ion Generator


"Only small (ingestible) negative ions can be inhaled. When they are inhaled they can have positive biological effects on your body. If they cannot be inhaled, as is the case with larger clusters of negative ions, they are simply air cleaners and have no biological effect on your body [although, they do decrease the percentage of ingestible negative ions]."

Tools and Technique for Mental Fitness: What are Ions?


"Air pollution can be sharply reduced or eliminated by electronic generation of sufficient negative charges to neutralize the positive charges causing the pollutants to remain in the air -- with the result that they are quickly precipitated to the floor by gravity."

International Bio-Environmental Foundation (IBEF) Bulletin: The Effects of Air Quality on the Serotonin Irritation Syndrome


“They [air cleaners] all fared better, however, when the tests more closely mimicked conditions in a typical home. In tests measuring ozone levels 3 feet away from the machine in a well-ventilated room,

·        the Brookstone cleaner Pure-Ion V2 emitted the least ozone at 2 ppb and

·        the IonizAir P4620 model emitted the most, at 28 ppb,

according to Asher.

     Fifty ppb is the accepted cutoff level for safety, and clearly the worst (ozone emitter) tested generated just over half of that,” he says. “So, one might conclude that there is no danger with these machines. While for most people that is probably true, some people do seem to be particularly susceptible to ozone.” 

FOX News Network: Ionizing Air Cleaners May Pose Health Hazard


Related Topics

·        The Brain: Frontal Lobes

·        The Brain: Serotonin

·        Indoor Air Pollution: Ions

·        Indoor Air Pollution: Positive Ions

·        Research Topics: Brainwaves

·        Research Topics: Integration

·        Research Topics: Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)



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