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The Cause of Internet and TV Addiction?


Aerobic Exercise


Note: This information is not intended as a substitute for medical treatment. Before starting an exercise program, consult a physician.


·          General Effects

·          Cognitive Function

·          Treating Hyperactivity

·          Psychological Benefits

·          Examples

·          Walking


What is Aerobic Exercise?

·          "Aerobic fitness increases the amount of oxygen that is delivered to your muscles, which allows them to work longer.

·           Any activity that raises your heart rate and keeps it up for an extended period of time will improve your aerobic fitness."

WebMD: Aerobic Fitness


“As you exercise more than three minutes you will eventually burn up all of the glycogen stored within the muscles and your muscles will move into aerobic metabolism. When this occurs lactic acid production is stopped. This occurs because the glycogen is now being burned in the presence of oxygen, which is brought to the muscles by way of the blood stream. As long as you breathe correctly you will bring oxygen to the muscles and this process will continue.”

Wellness on the Web: Cardiovascular Wellness and Prevention: Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Exercise



General Effects

"Increases in:

·          Heart health

·          Blood supply to heart and muscles

·          Muscular endurance

·          Your body’s utilization of oxygen

·          Mood, self-esteem, and self-concept"

WebMD: Aerobic Fitness


"Decreases in:

·          Risk of diabetes

·          Risk of some cancers

·          Risk of cardiovascular disease

·          Shortness of breath

·          Fatigue

·          Blood pressure

·          Cholesterol level

·          Blood sugar

·          Body fat

·          Anxiety and depression"

WebMD: Aerobic Fitness


"As you increase your aerobic fitness, you will notice that you can do more physical activity without becoming out of breath or feeling like your heart is pounding. You will be able to do activities such as playing with children, housework, yard work, or hiking without becoming exhausted as quickly.

Many forms of aerobic exercise will also strengthen your muscles and increase your flexibility."

WebMD: Aerobic Fitness


Cognitive Function

"What we found so fascinating was that exercise had its beneficial effect in specific areas of cognitive function that are rooted in the frontal and pre-frontal regions of the brain," said James Blumenthal, Duke psychologist and study principal investigator.

     Other cognitive functions that were measured by the team -- attention, concentration and psychomotor skills -- did not appear to be affected by the exercise program. Interestingly, the researchers noted, different regions of the brain are responsible for these abilities."

Aerobic Exercise Improves Cognitive Functioning Of Older Men And Women


"Just 10 minutes of exercise improved mood, increased vigor, reduced feelings of fatigue, and helped participants feel more clear-headed…20 minutes of exercise cleared people's heads better than 10 minutes."

WebMD: Just Minutes of Exercise Can Pump You Up


Treating Hyperactivity

·          Arousal: Hyperactivity: Aerobic Exercise


Psychological Benefits

"A new review of psychological research [1999] shows that exercise is an effective but underused treatment for

·          Mild to moderate depression.

The review…also shows there is some evidence that regular exercise may help in the treatment of

·          Schizophrenia,

·          Alcohol dependence and

·          As a singular treatment for

  • Some anxiety disorders and for
  • People suffering from body image problems."

ScienceDaily: Exercise Helps Keep Your Psyche Fit


"'Results of this relatively large, single-centre clinical trial indicate that exercise is a feasible therapy for patients suffering from MDD [major depressive disorder] and may be at least as effective as standard pharma-cotherapy,' report the researchers. It was not clear why people in the combined exercise-and-medication group fared worse than those assigned to exercise alone. But the researchers speculate that taking antidepressants might have compromised the psychological benefits (including feelings of personal mastery and enhanced self-esteem) that might be expected to come with following an exercise programme."

Peak Performance: Aerobic exercise beats drugs for depression


·          "Non-aerobic forms of exercise such as strength training are as effective as aerobic exercise in treating depression.

·          The researchers also found that less strenuous forms of regular exercise, such as walking, may be sufficient to demonstrate significant treatment effects, however they note more research is needed to confirm this initial finding."

ScienceDaily: Exercise Helps Keep Your Psyche Fit


·          WebMD: Exercise vs. Drugs for Depression


Aerobic Activities 


"Aerobic activities include:

·          Walking

·          Aerobic classes, including slide and step aerobics

·          Running or jogging

·          Bicycling or stationary bicycling

·          Cross-country skiing

·          Swimming

·          Daily activities, such as walking the dog or actively playing with children. These need to be done for at least 8 to 10 minutes per session.

·          Water aerobics (which is especially good for older people, those who are overweight, and those with joint problems).

·          Sports."

WebMD: Aerobic Fitness



Reducing Strain:

“Walking shoes, waist pouches, backpacks, etc., are meant to ease the load, not cause additional strain to your body. Take measures to fit the gear to you, not you to the gear.

·          Shop around for the right shoe. Your physiotherapist can make suggestions of what to look for in a walking shoethat best suits your needs and walking program;

·          Replace old shoes. The average life of a walking shoe is approximately 400 to 600 miles (620 to 800 km);

·          Monitor your posture and body mechanics. Make sure your head, shoulders and hips are lined up over your feet;

·          Consider getting orthotics [footwear modification]. Custom-made orthotics can correct or reduce improper motions which lead to chronic injuries.

·          Keep your stride comfortable. Too long a stride makes for an ‘overstride’ – muscles tighten up and tire before your walk is over;

·          Rotate your walking routes from incline to flat, sidewalk to grass, to keep it interesting and avoiding over-use injuries;

·          Don’t use wrist or ankle weights while walking as they put too much added stress on your joints.

·          Drink lots of fluids and be careful of overheating or dehydrating during activity;

·          Listen to your body and watch for recurring or persisting pain – if concerned, seek early professional attention from a physiotherapist.”

Canadian Physiotherapy Association: Walk S.M.A.R.T. with the wellness message of National Physiotherapy Month!


Walking on an Incline:

Note: Rotating a walking route from incline to flat can help to prevent over-use injuries.

"The fifteen degree incline resulted in the highest level of quadriceps and hamstring activity."

University of North Dakota: An EMG Study of Quadriceps and Hamstrings Activity During Forward and Backward Walking



Gait: Evaluating Gait

“Gait [a person's manner of walking] is evaluated by having the patient walk across the room under observation [this article is intended for medical students].

·        Gross gait abnormalities should be noted.

·        Next ask the patient to walk heel to toe across the room, then on their toes only, and finally on their heels only.

·        Normally, these maneuvers possible without too much difficulty.

·        Be certain to note the amount of arm swinging because a slight decrease in arm swinging is a highly sensitive indicator of upper extremity weakness.

·        Also, hopping in place on each foot should be performed.”

The Precise Neurological Exam: VII: 'Coordination, gait and Rhomberg's Test'


·         “Walking on heels is the most sensitive way to test for foot dorsiflexion weakness, while

·        walking on toes is the best way to test early foot plantar flexion weakness.”

The Precise Neurological Exam: VII: 'Coordination, gait and Rhomberg's Test'


Gait: Abnormalities

Gait: Abnormalities: Causes

Abnormalities in heel to toe walking (tandem gait) may be due to

·        Ethanol [ethyl alcohol] intoxication,

·        Weakness,

·        Poor position sense [proprioception, kinesthesia],

·        Vertigo [vestibular system] and

·        Leg tremors.

·        These causes must be excluded before the unbalance can be attributed to a cerebellar lesion.

·        Most elderly patients have difficulty with tandem gait purportedly due to general neuronal loss impairing a combination of position sense, strength and coordination.”

The Precise Neurological Exam: VII: 'Coordination, gait and Rhomberg's Test'


Gait: Abnormalities: Things to Avoid

·         The Brain: Naturally Occurring Substances: Causes of Endorphin Release: Spinal Jarring


Gait: Abnormalities: Types: Foot Drop

·        ACCRS: Helen F. Rizzotto: 'Foot Drop Rehabilitation: A Case Study'


Gait: Related Topics

·        Dehydration: Effects: Pain, Localized Thirst: Low Back Pain (spinal movement)

·        Exercise: Swiss Ball Exercises (spinal movement)


Target Heart Range

·        “Exercise is most valuable from a cardiovascular point of view when the heart is not over-taxed but yet is challenged.

·        The best way to do this is to bring the rate that our heart beats (pulse measured in the lower extremities) into a range which is between 60% and 85% of the maximum heart rate.

·        The maximum heart rate refers to that approximate level after which there is real or potential danger to the individual and where the heart is over taxed. At this rate exercise is difficult and will cause fatigue within minutes or sooner.

·        Below this and within the Target Range the heart is strengthened and made healthier. The target heart range is a calculated figure which depends on age.

·        The ability to reach and maintain a heart beat within the target range depends on

·        The health of the heart,

·        Conditioning,

·        Frequency of exercise and

·        The length of time exercising.

·        It is essential that each individual about to embark on using a regular, strenuous exercise program should have a complete physical examination. If there is indication of heart disease or dysrhythmia an electrocardiogram should also be done.”

Wellness on the Web: Cardiovascular Wellness and Prevention: Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Exercise


Calculating the Target Heart Range:

1.      The first thing you do is to subtract your age from 220 to get your maximum heart rate.

2.      Multiply your maximum heart rate first by .60 (60%) and then by .85 (85%). This will give you your target heart range.”

Wellness on the Web: Cardiovascular Wellness and Prevention: Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Exercise



Pulse Meters

·        “The reason to use a pulse meter…is your pulse-rate defines the amount and the extent of aerobic benefits you is getting.

·        The only way to accurately and safely determine your pulse is with a pulse   meter.

·        There are 3 kinds of pulse meters that, for a wide variety of reasons, should not be relied upon, if used at all!

  • A ‘finger-cuff’ unit into which you insert your fingertip.
  • Another is like a wristwatch strap that ‘reads’ your pulse from your wrist.
  • A third uses a small clip that attaches to the earlobe and is connected by a wire to the ‘read-out’ unit.

·        The only reliable kind of pulse meter on the market has an elastic chest strap with a small, battery-powered transmitter snapped onto it.  When strapped on, it ‘reads’ and wirelessly ‘transmits’ your pulse to a battery-powered, watch-like receiver you wear on your wrist. The accuracy of most good quality pulse meters is nearly equal to hospital heart monitors and ECG machines.

·        Some pulse meters double as digital wristwatches and also display the time of day.

·        Pulse meters with upper and lower ‘limit alarms’ are a wise choice.  They can be set for your lowest and highest recommended pulse rates, and will ‘beep’ at you when you are either below or exceeding your ‘aerobic’ target zone.

Ideal Bikes: Cycling Forum


Pedometers (for walking)

·        Walker's Warehouse: Electronics: Heart Rate Monitors: Product Resources: About Pedometers

·        Walker's Warehouse: Electronics: Heart Rate Monitors: Product Resources: Pedometer Comparison Chart



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