·         Arousal

·         The Brain

·         Exercise

·         Indoor Air Pollution

·         Muscle Tension

·         Nutrition

·         Posture

·         Sensory Processing

·         Sleep

·         Other Suggestions


Research Topics


My Theories

Former Theories



The Cause of Internet and TV Addiction?


Research Topics



·          Neuro-Linguistic Programming

·          Neuropsychology of Myopia

·           Pupil Dilation

·           Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

·           Sleep Deprivation

·           Similarities with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)

·           Similarities with Autism

·           Spinal Adjustments

·           Squatting

·           The Subclavian Arteries

·           Syntonics

·           Theory of Perceptual and Cognitive Pleasure (Dr. Irving Biederman)


·           Research Topics (A through M)


Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP)

What is Neuro-Linguistic Programming?

“Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is about noticing patterns. So, in NLP, we are not so much interested in content as in process. Often this is an interesting transition for us to make.

     The first step is to pay attention to the process of your interaction with others--listen to the form, watch the form, feel the form, and not get involved in the content.” 'An Introduction to NLP'


The Brain and the Viewing Angle of the Eye

“Bandler and Grinder [the founders of NLP] discovered that by looking at someone's eyes [at the direction of their gaze], you could tell HOW they think. Not what they think, but HOW they think. You can tell what they're doing inside.”


“Based on observations by Bandler and Grinder,

·           When people look up, they're visualizing [the eyes diverge and accommodate more easily when looking up, improving far visualization].

·           When they look horizontally to the left and right, they're either remembering or constructing sounds.

·           When they look downward and to our left [their right], they're accessing their feelings [also sense of touch—‘kinesthetic’].

·           And when they look downward and to our right [their left], they're talking to themselves (Auditory Digital).

The chart above [see image on linked site] is for a ‘normal’ right-handed person [meaning a right-handed person with no laterality issues?]. Many left-handed people and some ambidextrous people [I’ve read that there is no such thing as ambidexterity, and that there is a special test that can be used to determine handedness] will have eye movements that are reversed.” 'An Introduction to NLP'


“(In addition, some people access visually by defocusing [diverging, accommodating] their eyes. When this happens, the eyes will usually stay in the center.)” 'An Introduction to NLP'




Usually an individual will prefer to use a certain modality or will use primarily a certain modality as their primary representational system. Let's go through, the three major modes of operation so you can notice what mode people are operating in, and begin to identify them. You can then begin to match the modes [e.g. matching someone’s blink rate to establish a rapport with someone] by using the predicates and physiology that match their representational system.” 'An Introduction to NLP'



·           “Typically, people who are in a visual mode

·        Stand, or sit, with their heads and/or bodies erect with their eyes up [meaning tending to look upward?], and

·        Will be breathing from the top of their lungs.

·           They often sit forward in the chair or on the edge of the chair [myopic?; compare with ‘Neuropsychology of Myopia’: characteristics of myopes].

·           They tend to be more organized, neat, well-groomed and orderly.

·           More deliberate.

·           More appearance oriented, and sometimes quieter.

·           Good spellers.

·           Memorize by seeing pictures, and

·           Are less distracted by noise.

·           Often have trouble remembering verbal instructions, and are bored by long verbal explanations because their minds tend to wander.

·           They would rather read than be read to.

·           A visual person will be interested in how someone looks at them, and will respond to being taken places, and being bought things.

·           They will tend to use words like: See ya later, I want to look at it, Focus on it, Watch it, Be clear, Foggy, Picture that, Notice, Appears.” 'An Introduction to NLP'



·           “Someone who is auditory will move their eyes sideways and also down to the right.

·           They breathe from the middle of the chest.

·           They typically talk to themselves, and are easily distracted by noise.

·           They often move their lips when they say words.

·           They can repeat things back to you easily.

·           They may find math and writing more difficult and spoken language easier.

·           They like music and learn by listening.

·           They memorize by steps, procedures, and sequence.

·           An auditory person is often interested in being told how they're doing, and responds to a certain set of words or tone of voice.

·           They tend to use words and phrases like: Listen, Talk to, Said, Speak, Hear, and Sounds [phrases?] like, ‘Good to talk to you.’” 'An Introduction to NLP'



·           “They will typically be breathing from the bottom of their lungs, so you'll see their stomach go in and out as they breathe.

·           Their posture is often more slumped over, and they often move and talk verrrry slooowly.

·           They will typically access their feelings and emotions to ‘get a feel’ for what they're doing.

·           They respond to physical rewards, and touching.

·           They also stand close to people and touch them.

·           They are often physically oriented people (athletes).

·           They may move a lot, and they memorize by doing, or walking through something. They use words like: Feelings, Get in touch, Hold, Grasp, and Handle.” 'An Introduction to NLP'


Modalities and Rapport

“Those are the characteristics of the three major modes [other modes?] of operation. And so, the question is now, how do you use them to communicate with people? How do you communicate with someone who is primarily in one of those modes? This brings us to the subject of rapport...” 'An Introduction to NLP'


Things to Consider

Neck Tension

Turning your neck for extended periods leads to neck tension.


Eye Strain

Gazing at an angle for long periods of time exacerbates eye strain.



Related Topics

Vision and Gaze, Horizontal Viewing angle (in Amblyopia section), Monitor Placement (slightly below eye level), Dual-Brain Psychology, EMDR, Hearing, Sound Sensitivity


Neuropsychology of Myopia

"When information is familiar to the organism it is immediately meaningful and its recognized and acted upon without effort expended to classify or understand it. The response pattern in this case is mainly motor (action) with little need for the autonomic changes which an especially novel environment stimulates through the arousal system.

     If the information is not familiar and is confusing, threatening, or overwhelming to the organism, a different brain process is engaged which includes arousal, frontal organization and vigilance (the information will be processed until it is understood).

     The frontal system includes the frontal cortex as well as the amygdala and the reticular system of the hypothalamus and brain stem (Pribram, 1971). This frontal system is intimately related to the arousal-orienting response reactions of the organism. When an animal is alerted by a novel situation the frontal system is engaged and the visceral-autonomic centers in the core brain are stimulated. Changes occur in breathing, heart rate, blood flow, pupil size increase, skin resistance, etc., and the motor system orients (turns towards the action and then freezes). There are also changes to electroencephalographic measurements; the brain wave rhythm increases in frequency and becomes desynchronized. If the stimulus is unusually strong, surprising, or appears especially dangerous, the reactions of fight or flight take place."

"…The eye movement patterns characteristic of poor vision are similar to those of experimental subjects who are involved in situations of visual overload. Mackworth (1976) used sophisticated eye movement measuring devices to record the visual characteristics of subjects in visual tasks at various levels of difficulty. He described [ascribed?] the adjustments made by the visual motor system to conditions of visual overload. The major adjustment was seen to be a narrowing of the size of the useful field of view. This was true not only during the active search of too much material in too short a time, but was also true during tasks requiring vigilance, or waiting for a visual stimulus event to occur.

     He also found the size of movements was reduced and become more stereotyped; despite the decrease in useful field of view, the subject tried to include more stimuli in each fixation. The visual fixation time was lengthened to account for the increased number of items encompassed in a single fixation indicating increased cognitive difficulty processing complex visual material. Finally, there was a breakdown or failure of adjustment to increasing complexity under visual overload."

Neuropsychology of Myopia


Pupil Dilation 


Adrenaline secretion causes pupil dilation.

·          Adrenaline: Effects: Vision



Atropine eyedrops may be used to treat amblyopia by causing the pupil of one eye to dilate [normally both pupils dilate and contract together, even if one is blocked], and blur vision.

·          Vision: Binocular Functions: Amblyopia: Treatment: Passive Treatment (Occlusion)


Chronic Dilation of the Pupil

An Excess of Endorhpins?

Can chronic dilation of the pupil, caused by adrenaline secretion, cause the body to release an excess or endorphins when the eyes are exposed to bright light?

·           The Brain: Endorphins: An Excess of Endorphins

·           Light Sensitivity: Causes: Stimulants, Medications (chronic dilation of the pupil)


Are therapies such as

·          Light therapy for Seasonal Affective Disorder or

·          Syntonics

helpful in preventing an excess of endorphins by causing the pupil to contract, even though exposure to light may be increased?


Can exercises such as palming be helpful in preventing an excess of endorphins by

·          Reducing stress and adrenaline secretion and

·          Blocking light to the eyes,

even though a lack of light will cause the pupils to remain dilated?


Sleep Deprivation and Dopamine

Research Topics: Sleep Deprivation:

·           Antidepressant Effects, Dopamine

·           Eye-Blink Rate, Dopamine

·           Effect on the Frontal Lobes

·           Adrenaline

·           Related Topics



·          The Brain: Dopamine: Dopamine Levels: Limbic System, Too Much Dopamine



·           Research Topics: Neuropsychology of Myopia


Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

What is SAD?

·          "Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs at the same time each year.

·          SAD most often begins in the fall or winter and then subsides in the spring. It sometimes is called the 'winter blues' because most people with seasonal affective disorder have an episode of depression during the winter months, although it is possible to experience SAD during summer months.

·          A diagnosis of SAD is made when a pattern of depression and remission from depression is present for at least two consecutive years."

WebMD: Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)


Risk Factors

·           "Female. 60% to 90% of people diagnosed with SAD are women

·           An older teen or young adult. Young people are at higher risk for winter depressive episodes. The risk of developing SAD for the first time decreases as you grow older.

·           Living far from the equator. People who live in the northern hemisphere develop seasonal affective disorder more often, although you can develop SAD no matter where you live.

·           Working at a certain job or living in a situation that keeps you out of sunlight (such as working at night and sleeping during the daylight hours)."

WebMD: Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): Topic Overview



Serotonin, Melatonin

"The reason why our moods slip and our appetites take over by midwinter could be simply that we're cooped up, bored, and restless, or it could have a deeper cause, resulting in a drop of serotonin or melatonin, brain chemicals that regulate sleep, mood, and hunger. (Page 139)"

Book: Somer, Elizabeth, M.A., R.D. Food & Mood. Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 1999.


Serotonin and Carbohydrates

"Since carbohydrate-rich foods stimulate the production of serotonin, SAD sufferers who crave sweets, potatoes, pasta, rice, and bread during the winter months are turning to starchy or sugary foods in an effort to feel better, calmer, and more relaxed, not because they are bored or lack willpower. Their bodies also crave these foods in an effort to fight fatigue. Interestingly, SAD sufferers who eat sweet snacks midday also respond better to light therapy than do people who do not cater to a sweet tooth, which suggests the carbohydrate-induced increase in serotonin combined with light-induced reduction of melatonin levels is more effective than either therapy alone."

Book: Somer, Elizabeth, M.A., R.D. Food & Mood. Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 1999.



"Some SAD sufferers might be deficient in another nerve chemical called dopamine, which is suspected to decrease with reduced exposure to light. As discussed in chapter 1, dopamine is the brain activator; people are more alert and think more clearly when dopamine levels are high. Consequently, if cloudy winter months lower dopamine levels, this would contribute to the drowsiness, poor concentration, and other mood swings characteristic of SAD. (Page 144)"

Book: Somer, Elizabeth, M.A., R.D. Food & Mood. Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 1999.



·          Indoor Air Pollution: Ions: Effects: SAD and Depression


Light Therapy

·          “Light therapy exposes you to bright light—not full-spectrum light—that is brighter than indoor light but not as bright as sunlight.

·          Light therapy has an antidepressive effect that may help balance certain brain chemicals and reset proper circadian rhythms.”

Receiving light therapy at home to treat SAD: What is light therapy? 


Related Topics

·           The Brain: Dopamine

·           The Brain: Melatonin

·           The Brain: Serotonin

·           Indoor Air Pollution: Ions

·           Research Topics: Bilirubin

·           Research Topics: Syntonics


Sleep Deprivation

·           Research Topics: Sleep Deprivation


Spinal Adjustments


"Correcting problems in the upper cervical spine can lead to seemingly miraculous elimination of symptoms elsewhere in the body. In fact, cervical [neck] lordosis [curve of the spine] correcting adjustments have been experimentally shown to increase people's ability to

·          Aerate their lungs,

·          Increase their vital capacity and

·          Boost their immune systems' activity.

Brennen et al., documented the respiratory burst of immune system enhancing cellular activity (polymnorphonuclear neutrophils and monocytes) following these corrective adjustments. (23)

     In addition, a literature review in the Chiropractic Journal of Australia showed that

·          T and B lymphocyte [a white blood cell that is part of the immune system] numbers,

·          Natural killer cell numbers,

·          Antibody levels,

·          Phagocytic [phagocytes are cells that engulf and digests debris and invading microorganisms] activity and

·          Plasma endorphin levels

are positively influenced by spinal correcting adjustments. (24)"

Somatics Plus: Posture, Pain, & Proprioceptors


"The role of spinal manipulation in the relief of pain is becoming clearer and more demonstrable as time passes. One approach to this study is the effect of manipulation on the neurochemical mechanisms of antinociception [analgesia-- deadening pain without losing consciousness]. Chief among these is beta-endorphin, which has been found to produce a wide range of beneficial effects, especially analgesia."

PubMed: Spinal manipulation and beta-endorphin: a controlled study of the effect of a spinal manipulation on plasma beta-endorphin levels in normal males.


Related Topics

·          Posture: Forward Head Posture: Effects: Endorphins



·        Research Topics: Squatting


The Subclavian Arteries



"The subclavian arteries vary in

·          their origin,

·          their course, and

·          the height to which they rise in the neck."

Anatomy of the Human Body: 4. The Arteries of the Upper Extremity. a. The Subclavian Artery


Right Subclavian

Right Subclavian: Origin

"The originof the right subclavian from the innominate [a great branch of the arch of the aorta] takes place,

·          in some cases, above the sternoclavicular articulation [the joint formed by the sternal extremity of the clavicle, the clavicular notch of the manubrium of the sternum, and the first costal cartilage], and

·          occasionally, but less frequently, below that joint."

The artery may arise as a separate trunk from the arch of the aorta, and in such cases it may be either the first, second, third, or even the last branch derived from that vessel; in the majority, however, it is the first or last, rarely the second or third.

·         When it is the first branch, it occupies the ordinary position of the innominate artery [a great branch of the arch of the aorta];

·         When the second or third, it gains its usual position by passing behind the right carotid; and

·         When the last branch, it arises from the left extremity of the arch [of the aorta], and passes

  • obliquely toward the right side,
  • usually behind the

·          trachea,

·          esophagus, and

·          right carotid,

  • sometimes between the esophagus and trachea,

to the upper border of the first rib, whence it follows its ordinary course.

·         In very rareinstances, this vessel arises from the thoracic aorta, as low down as the fourth thoracic vertebra."

Anatomy of the Human Body: 4. The Arteries of the Upper Extremity. a. The Subclavian Artery


Right Subclavian: Course

·         "Occasionally, it perforates the Scalenus anterior [scalene muscle];

·         More rarelyit passes in front of that muscle [Scalenus anterior].

·         Sometimes the subclavian vein passes with the artery behind the Scalenus anterior.


Right Subclavian: Height

·          "The artery may ascend as high as 4 cm. above the clavicle, or any intermediate point between this and the upper border of the bone,

·          the right subclavian usually ascending higher than the left."

Anatomy of the Human Body: 4. The Arteries of the Upper Extremity. a. The Subclavian Artery


Left Subclavian

Left Subclavian: Origin

"The left subclavian is occasionally joined at its origin with the left carotid."

Anatomy of the Human Body: 4. The Arteries of the Upper Extremity. a. The Subclavian Artery


Left Subclavian: Course and Height

"The left subclavian artery is

·          More deeply placed than the right in the first part of its course, and,

·          As a rule, does not reach quite as high a level in the neck.

The posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus [the sternocleidomastoid muscle] corresponds pretty closely to the lateral border of the Scalenus anterior [scalene muscle], so that the third portion of the artery, the part most accessible for operation, lies immediately lateral to the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus."              

Anatomy of the Human Body: 4. The Arteries of the Upper Extremity. a. The Subclavian Artery


Related Topics

·          Posture: Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: Neurovascular Bundle

·          Nutrition: Vitamins and Minerals: Fat-Soluble Vitamins: Absorption (left subclavian)



"If a person's visual perception…[,] how much information they are capable of processing by the brain[,] is reduced, it can affect a persons

·          Reading ability,

·          Awareness,

·          Memory,

·          Depth perception,

·          Co-ordination,

·          Balance,

·          Memory or

·          Comprehension.

By re-stimulating the eye's retina with specific frequencies of light, the retinal processing of visual information by the brain can be enhanced. These changes can be easily measured by the ability of the visual field to process increased levels of information."

College of Syntonic Optometry: Syntonics


"…The use of light therapy has been recognized most recently in the treatment of SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder)as the only known form of therapy for ‘winter blues’ or depression. In 1985 psychiatry discovered light therapy. From the National Institutes of Health, in the United States, to medical clinics around the world, many individuals are now receiving exposures to bright light as treatment for Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD).”

College of Syntonic Optometry: Syntonics


"…Not all retinal (light-sensitive) nerves in the eyes serve vision. Some connect the retina directly to non-visual brain centers such as the hypothalamus and pineal gland. These centers influence

·          Electrical,

·          Chemical and

·          Hormonal balances,

which affect all body functions including vision. Years of clinical application and research have demonstrated that certain selected light frequencies (colors), applied by way of the eyes to these centers, can produce beneficial results in the body."  

College of Syntonic Optometry: Syntonics


“The goal of Syntonics is to improve vision problems by balancing the sympathetic [fight or flight] and parasympathetic [involuntary] nervous system.”

Dr. Errol Rummel - Syntonics (Optometric Phototherapy)


·        “The yellow, orange and red ends of the visible spectrum stimulate the sympathetic nervous system; and

·        the blue, indigo and violet ends stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system.

·        Green is the balance frequency stimulating the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems equally.”

Dr. Errol Rummel - Syntonics (Optometric Phototherapy)


“Interest in phototherapy [Syntonics is also known as optometric phototherapy] has increased in recent years, with

·        Research showing that color changes the interaction and timing in the visual-processing system; and also with

·        The discovery of a condition known as seasonal affective disorder--a psychological depression occurring during the winter months, which responds to phototherapy.”

Dr. Errol Rummel - Syntonics (Optometric Phototherapy)


Theory of Perceptual and Cognitive Pleasure (Dr. Irving Biederman)

Dr. Biederman's theory explains how certain images can cause a release of endorphins.


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